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类型【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1:王文龙 大小:rklektqK13268KB 下载:nAYDk4DW45325次
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1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  This messenger, on morrow when he woke, Unto the castle held the nexte* way, *nearest And to the constable the letter took; And when he this dispiteous* letter sey,** *cruel **saw Full oft he said, "Alas, and well-away! Lord Christ," quoth he, "how may this world endure? So full of sin is many a creature.
2.  29. Leden: Language, dialect; from Anglo-Saxon, "leden" or "laeden," a corruption from "Latin."
3.  "I say, Griseld', this present dignity, In which that I have put you, as I trow* *believe Maketh you not forgetful for to be That I you took in poor estate full low, For any weal you must yourselfe know. Take heed of every word that I you say, There is no wight that hears it but we tway.* *two
4.  This Constable was not lord of the place Of which I speak, there as he Constance fand,* *found But kept it strongly many a winter space, Under Alla, king of Northumberland, That was full wise, and worthy of his hand Against the Scotes, as men may well hear; But turn I will again to my mattere.
5.  "And, Troilus, one thing I dare thee swear, That if Cressida, which that is thy lief,* *love Now loveth thee as well as thou dost her, God help me so, she will not take agrief* *amiss Though thou *anon do boot in* this mischief; *provide a remedy And if she willeth from thee for to pass, immediately* Then is she false, so love her well the lass.* *less
6.  The plan of the volume does not demand an elaborate examination into the state of our language when Chaucer wrote, or the nice questions of grammatical and metrical structure which conspire with the obsolete orthography to make his poems a sealed book for the masses. The most important element in the proper reading of Chaucer's verses -- whether written in the decasyllabic or heroic metre, which he introduced into our literature, or in the octosyllabic measure used with such animated effect in "The House of Fame," "Chaucer's Dream," &c. -- is the sounding of the terminal "e" where it is now silent. That letter is still valid in French poetry; and Chaucer's lines can be scanned only by reading them as we would read Racine's or Moliere's. The terminal "e" played an important part in grammar; in many cases it was the sign of the infinitive -- the "n" being dropped from the end; at other times it pointed the distinction between singular and plural, between adjective and adverb. The pages that follow, however, being prepared from the modern English point of view, necessarily no account is taken of those distinctions; and the now silent "e" has been retained in the text of Chaucer only when required by the modern spelling, or by the exigencies of metre.

计划指导

1.  He took his leave, and she astonish'd stood; In all her face was not one drop of blood: She never ween'd t'have come in such a trap. "Alas!" quoth she, "that ever this should hap! For ween'd I ne'er, by possibility, That such a monster or marvail might be; It is against the process of nature." And home she went a sorrowful creature; For very fear unnethes* may she go. *scarcely She weeped, wailed, all a day or two, And swooned, that it ruthe was to see: But why it was, to no wight tolde she, For out of town was gone Arviragus. But to herself she spake, and saide thus, With face pale, and full sorrowful cheer, In her complaint, as ye shall after hear. "Alas!" quoth she, "on thee, Fortune, I plain,* *complain That unware hast me wrapped in thy chain, From which to scape, wot I no succour, Save only death, or elles dishonour; One of these two behoveth me to choose. But natheless, yet had I lever* lose *sooner, rather My life, than of my body have shame, Or know myselfe false, or lose my name; And with my death *I may be quit y-wis.* *I may certainly purchase Hath there not many a noble wife, ere this, my exemption* And many a maiden, slain herself, alas! Rather than with her body do trespass? Yes, certes; lo, these stories bear witness. <22> When thirty tyrants full of cursedness* *wickedness Had slain Phidon in Athens at the feast, They commanded his daughters to arrest, And bringe them before them, in despite, All naked, to fulfil their foul delight; And in their father's blood they made them dance Upon the pavement, -- God give them mischance. For which these woeful maidens, full of dread, Rather than they would lose their maidenhead, They privily *be start* into a well, *suddenly leaped And drowned themselves, as the bookes tell. They of Messene let inquire and seek Of Lacedaemon fifty maidens eke, On which they woulde do their lechery: But there was none of all that company That was not slain, and with a glad intent Chose rather for to die, than to assent To be oppressed* of her maidenhead. *forcibly bereft Why should I then to dien be in dread? Lo, eke the tyrant Aristoclides, That lov'd a maiden hight Stimphalides, When that her father slain was on a night, Unto Diana's temple went she right, And hent* the image in her handes two, *caught, clasped From which image she woulde never go; No wight her handes might off it arace,* *pluck away by force Till she was slain right in the selfe* place. *same Now since that maidens hadde such despite To be defouled with man's foul delight, Well ought a wife rather herself to sle,* *slay Than be defouled, as it thinketh me. What shall I say of Hasdrubale's wife, That at Carthage bereft herself of life? For, when she saw the Romans win the town, She took her children all, and skipt adown Into the fire, and rather chose to die, Than any Roman did her villainy. Hath not Lucretia slain herself, alas! At Rome, when that she oppressed* was *ravished Of Tarquin? for her thought it was a shame To live, when she hadde lost her name. The seven maidens of Milesie also Have slain themselves for very dread and woe, Rather than folk of Gaul them should oppress. More than a thousand stories, as I guess, Could I now tell as touching this mattere. When Abradate was slain, his wife so dear <23> Herselfe slew, and let her blood to glide In Abradate's woundes, deep and wide, And said, 'My body at the leaste way There shall no wight defoul, if that I may.' Why should I more examples hereof sayn? Since that so many have themselves slain, Well rather than they would defouled be, I will conclude that it is bet* for me *better To slay myself, than be defouled thus. I will be true unto Arviragus, Or elles slay myself in some mannere, As did Demotione's daughter dear, Because she woulde not defouled be. O Sedasus, it is full great pity To reade how thy daughters died, alas! That slew themselves *for suche manner cas.* *in circumstances of As great a pity was it, or well more, the same kind* The Theban maiden, that for Nicanor Herselfe slew, right for such manner woe. Another Theban maiden did right so; For one of Macedon had her oppress'd, She with her death her maidenhead redress'd.* *vindicated What shall I say of Niceratus' wife, That for such case bereft herself her life? How true was eke to Alcibiades His love, that for to dien rather chese,* *chose Than for to suffer his body unburied be? Lo, what a wife was Alceste?" quoth she. "What saith Homer of good Penelope? All Greece knoweth of her chastity. Pardie, of Laedamia is written thus, That when at Troy was slain Protesilaus, <24> No longer would she live after his day. The same of noble Porcia tell I may; Withoute Brutus coulde she not live, To whom she did all whole her hearte give. <25> The perfect wifehood of Artemisie <26> Honoured is throughout all Barbarie. O Teuta <27> queen, thy wifely chastity To alle wives may a mirror be." <28>
2.  Saying plainely, that she would obey, With all her heart, all her commandement: And then anon, without longer delay, The Lady of the Leaf hath one y-sent To bring a palfrey, *after her intent,* *according to her wish* Arrayed well in fair harness of gold; For nothing lack'd, that *to him longe sho'ld.* *should belong to him*
3.  22 The Romance of the Rose: a very popular mediaeval romance, the English version of which is partly by Chaucer. It opens with a description of a beautiful garden.
4.  26. Artemisia, Queen of Caria, who built to her husband Mausolus, the splendid monument which was accounted among the wonders of the world; and who mingled her husband's ashes with her daily drink. "Barbarie" is used in the Greek sense, to designate the non-Hellenic peoples of Asia.
5.  "God wot," quoth he, "nothing thereof feel I; So help me Christ, as I in fewe years Have spended upon *divers manner freres* *friars of various sorts* Full many a pound, yet fare I ne'er the bet;* *better Certain my good have I almost beset:* *spent Farewell my gold, for it is all ago."* *gone The friar answer'd, "O Thomas, dost thou so? What needest thou diverse friars to seech?* *seek What needeth him that hath a perfect leech,* *healer To seeken other leeches in the town? Your inconstance is your confusioun. Hold ye then me, or elles our convent, To praye for you insufficient? Thomas, that jape* it is not worth a mite; *jest Your malady is *for we have too lite.* *because we have Ah, give that convent half a quarter oats; too little* And give that convent four and twenty groats; And give that friar a penny, and let him go! Nay, nay, Thomas, it may no thing be so. What is a farthing worth parted on twelve? Lo, each thing that is oned* in himselve *made one, united Is more strong than when it is y-scatter'd. Thomas, of me thou shalt not be y-flatter'd, Thou wouldest have our labour all for nought. The highe God, that all this world hath wrought, Saith, that the workman worthy is his hire Thomas, nought of your treasure I desire As for myself, but that all our convent To pray for you is aye so diligent: And for to builde Christe's owen church. Thomas, if ye will learne for to wirch,* *work Of building up of churches may ye find If it be good, in Thomas' life of Ind.<18> Ye lie here full of anger and of ire, With which the devil sets your heart on fire, And chide here this holy innocent Your wife, that is so meek and patient. And therefore trow* me, Thomas, if thee lest,** *believe **please Ne strive not with thy wife, as for the best. And bear this word away now, by thy faith, Touching such thing, lo, what the wise man saith: 'Within thy house be thou no lion; To thy subjects do none oppression; Nor make thou thine acquaintance for to flee.' And yet, Thomas, eftsoones* charge I thee, *again Beware from ire that in thy bosom sleeps, Ware from the serpent, that so slily creeps Under the grass, and stingeth subtilly. Beware, my son, and hearken patiently, That twenty thousand men have lost their lives For striving with their lemans* and their wives. *mistresses Now since ye have so holy and meek a wife, What needeth you, Thomas, to make strife? There is, y-wis,* no serpent so cruel, *certainly When men tread on his tail nor half so fell,* *fierce As woman is, when she hath caught an ire; Very* vengeance is then all her desire. *pure, only Ire is a sin, one of the greate seven, Abominable to the God of heaven, And to himself it is destruction. This every lewed* vicar and parson *ignorant Can say, how ire engenders homicide; Ire is in sooth th' executor* of pride. *executioner I could of ire you say so muche sorrow, My tale shoulde last until to-morrow. And therefore pray I God both day and ight, An irous* man God send him little might. *passionate It is great harm, and certes great pity To set an irous man in high degree.
6.  "This is enough, Griselda mine," quoth he, "Be now no more *aghast, nor evil paid,* *afraid, nor displeased* I have thy faith and thy benignity As well as ever woman was, assay'd, In great estate and poorely array'd: Now know I, deare wife, thy steadfastness;" And her in arms he took, and gan to kiss.

推荐功能

1.  31. Dwale: sleeping potion, narcotic. See note 19 to the Reeve's Tale.
2.  Now will I speak of oathes false and great A word or two, as olde bookes treat. Great swearing is a thing abominable, And false swearing is more reprovable. The highe God forbade swearing at all; Witness on Matthew: <22> but in special Of swearing saith the holy Jeremie, <23> Thou thalt swear sooth thine oathes, and not lie: And swear in doom* and eke in righteousness; *judgement But idle swearing is a cursedness.* *wickedness Behold and see, there in the firste table Of highe Godde's hestes* honourable, *commandments How that the second best of him is this, Take not my name in idle* or amiss. *in vain Lo, rather* he forbiddeth such swearing, *sooner Than homicide, or many a cursed thing; I say that as by order thus it standeth; This knoweth he that his hests* understandeth, *commandments How that the second hest of God is that. And farthermore, I will thee tell all plat,* *flatly, plainly That vengeance shall not parte from his house, That of his oathes is outrageous. "By Godde's precious heart, and by his nails, <24> And by the blood of Christ, that is in Hailes, <25> Seven is my chance, and thine is cinque and trey: By Godde's armes, if thou falsely play, This dagger shall throughout thine hearte go." This fruit comes of the *bicched bones two,* *two cursed bones (dice)* Forswearing, ire, falseness, and homicide. Now, for the love of Christ that for us died, Leave your oathes, bothe great and smale. But, Sirs, now will I ell you forth my tale.
3.  This thing was granted, and our oath we swore With full glad heart, and prayed him also, That he would vouchesafe for to do so, And that he woulde be our governour, And of our tales judge and reportour, And set a supper at a certain price; And we will ruled be at his device, In high and low: and thus by one assent, We be accorded to his judgement. And thereupon the wine was fet* anon. *fetched. We drunken, and to reste went each one, Withouten any longer tarrying A-morrow, when the day began to spring, Up rose our host, and was *our aller cock*, *the cock to wake us all* And gather'd us together in a flock, And forth we ridden all a little space, Unto the watering of Saint Thomas<62>: And there our host began his horse arrest, And saide; "Lordes, hearken if you lest. Ye *weet your forword,* and I it record. *know your promise* If even-song and morning-song accord, Let see now who shall telle the first tale. As ever may I drinke wine or ale, Whoso is rebel to my judgement, Shall pay for all that by the way is spent. Now draw ye cuts*, ere that ye farther twin**. *lots **go He which that hath the shortest shall begin."
4.  1. Well unnethes durst this knight for dread: This knight hardly dared, for fear (that she would not entertain his suit.)
5.   40. Entriketh: entangles, ensnares; french, "intriguer," to perplex; hence "intricate."
6.  23. Trill: turn; akin to "thirl", "drill."

应用

1.  25. Poor scholars at the universities used then to go about begging for money to maintain them and their studies.
2.  The Christian folk, that through the streete went, In came, for to wonder on this thing: And hastily they for the provost sent. He came anon withoute tarrying, And heried* Christ, that is of heaven king, *praised And eke his mother, honour of mankind; And after that the Jewes let* he bind. *caused
3.  The lovers took a heart-rending adieu; and Troilus, suffering unimaginable anguish, "withoute more, out of the chamber went."
4、  "Madame," quoth he, "grand mercy of your lore, But natheless, as touching *Dan Catoun,* *Cato That hath of wisdom such a great renown, Though that he bade no dreames for to dread, By God, men may in olde bookes read Of many a man more of authority Than ever Cato was, so may I the,* *thrive That all the reverse say of his sentence,* *opinion And have well founden by experience That dreames be significations As well of joy, as tribulations That folk enduren in this life present. There needeth make of this no argument; The very preve* sheweth it indeed. *trial, experience One of the greatest authors that men read <13> Saith thus, that whilom two fellowes went On pilgrimage in a full good intent; And happen'd so, they came into a town Where there was such a congregatioun Of people, and eke so *strait of herbergage,* *without lodging* That they found not as much as one cottage In which they bothe might y-lodged be: Wherefore they musten of necessity, As for that night, departe company; And each of them went to his hostelry,* *inn And took his lodging as it woulde fall. The one of them was lodged in a stall, Far in a yard, with oxen of the plough; That other man was lodged well enow, As was his aventure, or his fortune, That us governeth all, as in commune. And so befell, that, long ere it were day, This man mette* in his bed, there: as he lay, *dreamed How that his fellow gan upon him call, And said, 'Alas! for in an ox's stall This night shall I be murder'd, where I lie Now help me, deare brother, or I die; In alle haste come to me,' he said. This man out of his sleep for fear abraid;* *started But when that he was wak'd out of his sleep, He turned him, and *took of this no keep;* *paid this no attention* He thought his dream was but a vanity. Thus twies* in his sleeping dreamed he, *twice And at the thirde time yet his fellaw again Came, as he thought, and said, 'I am now slaw;* *slain Behold my bloody woundes, deep and wide. Arise up early, in the morning, tide, And at the west gate of the town,' quoth he, 'A carte full of dung there shalt: thou see, In which my body is hid privily. Do thilke cart arroste* boldely. *stop My gold caused my murder, sooth to sayn.' And told him every point how he was slain, With a full piteous face, and pale of hue.
5、  8. Popelet: Puppet; but chiefly; young wench.

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  • 涂坊 08-05

      Notes To a Goodly Ballad Of Chaucer

  • 杨抒燕 08-05

      She thanked them, and then her leave took, And into a hawthorn by that brook, And there she sat and sang upon that tree, *"Term of life love hath withhold me;"* *love hath me in her So loude, that I with that song awoke. service all my life*

  • 蒋晓 08-05

       94. John Gower, the poet, a contemporary and friend of Chaucer's; author, among other works, of the "Confessio Amantis." See note 1 to the Man of Law's Tale.

  • 郑秀晶 08-05

      A year or two he was in this service, Page of the chamber of Emily the bright; And Philostrate he saide that he hight. But half so well belov'd a man as he Ne was there never in court of his degree. He was so gentle of conditioun, That throughout all the court was his renown. They saide that it were a charity That Theseus would *enhance his degree*, *elevate him in rank* And put him in some worshipful service, There as he might his virtue exercise. And thus within a while his name sprung Both of his deedes, and of his good tongue, That Theseus hath taken him so near, That of his chamber he hath made him squire, And gave him gold to maintain his degree; And eke men brought him out of his country From year to year full privily his rent. But honestly and slyly* he it spent, *discreetly, prudently That no man wonder'd how that he it had. And three year in this wise his life be lad*, *led And bare him so in peace and eke in werre*, *war There was no man that Theseus had so derre*. *dear And in this blisse leave I now Arcite, And speak I will of Palamon a lite*. *little

  • 张洪业 08-04

    {  13. TN: The sparrowhawk and parrot can only squawk unpleasantly.

  • 胡文虎 08-03

      "Alas! what have these lovers thee aguilt?* *offended, sinned against Dispiteous* Day, thine be the pains of hell! *cruel, spiteful For many a lover hast thou slain, and wilt; Thy peering in will nowhere let them dwell: What! proff'rest thou thy light here for to sell? Go sell it them that smalle seales grave!* *cut devices on We will thee not, us needs no day to have."}

  • 方玉祥 08-03

      Long was the sobbing and the bitter pain, Ere that their woeful heartes mighte cease; Great was the pity for to hear them plain,* *lament Through whiche plaintes gan their woe increase. I pray you all my labour to release, I may not tell all their woe till to-morrow, I am so weary for to speak of sorrow.

  • 黄宙辉 08-03

      22. Charboucle: Carbuncle; French, "escarboucle;" a heraldic device resembling a jewel.

  • 苑广阔 08-02

       And when this knight had thus his tale told, He rode out of the hall, and down he light. His steede, which that shone as sunne bright, Stood in the court as still as any stone. The knight is to his chamber led anon, And is unarmed, and to meat y-set.* *seated These presents be full richely y-fet,* -- *fetched This is to say, the sword and the mirrour, -- And borne anon into the highe tow'r, With certain officers ordain'd therefor; And unto Canace the ring is bore Solemnely, where she sat at the table; But sickerly, withouten any fable, The horse of brass, that may not be remued.* *removed <12> It stood as it were to the ground y-glued; There may no man out of the place it drive For no engine of windlass or polive; * *pulley And cause why, for they *can not the craft;* *know not the cunning And therefore in the place they have it laft, of the mechanism* Till that the knight hath taught them the mannere To voide* him, as ye shall after hear. *remove

  • 埃森哲 07-31

    {  90. Lyke-wake: watching by the remains of the dead; from Anglo-Saxon, "lice," a corpse; German, "Leichnam."

  • 王慧敏 07-31

      Another tercel eagle spake anon, Of lower kind, and said that should not be; "I love her better than ye do, by Saint John! Or at the least I love her as well as ye, And longer have her serv'd in my degree; And if she should have lov'd for long loving, To me alone had been the guerdoning.* *reward

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