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1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  12. Hewe: domestic servant; from Anglo-Saxon, "hiwa." Tyrwhitt reads "false of holy hue;" but Mr Wright has properly restored the reading adopted in the text.
2.  And pray for them that eke be despair'd In love, that never will recover'd be; And eke for them that falsely be appair'd* *slandered Through wicked tongues, be it he or she: Or thus bid* God, for his benignity, *pray To grant them soon out of this world to pace,* *pass, go That be despaired of their love's grace.
3.  66. Cerrial: of the species of oak which Pliny, in his "Natural History," calls "cerrus."
4.  The sergeant came unto his lord again, And of Griselda's words and of her cheer* *demeanour He told him point for point, in short and plain, And him presented with his daughter dear. Somewhat this lord had ruth in his mannere, But natheless his purpose held he still, As lordes do, when they will have their will;
5.  Virgin! that art so noble of apparail,* *aspect That leadest us into the highe tow'r Of Paradise, thou me *wiss and counsail* *direct and counsel* How I may have thy grace and thy succour; All have I been in filth and in errour, Lady! *on that country thou me adjourn,* *take me to that place* That called is thy bench of freshe flow'r, There as that mercy ever shall sojourn.
6.  The Second Part of the Parson's Tale or Treatise opens with an explanation of what is confession -- which is termed "the second part of penitence, that is, sign of contrition;" whether it ought needs be done or not; and what things be convenable to true confession. Confession is true shewing of sins to the priest, without excusing, hiding, or forwrapping [disguising] of anything, and without vaunting of good works. "Also, it is necessary to understand whence that sins spring, and how they increase, and which they be." From Adam we took original sin; "from him fleshly descended be we all, and engendered of vile and corrupt matter;" and the penalty of Adam's transgression dwelleth with us as to temptation, which penalty is called concupiscence. "This concupiscence, when it is wrongfully disposed or ordained in a man, it maketh him covet, by covetise of flesh, fleshly sin by sight of his eyes, as to earthly things, and also covetise of highness by pride of heart." The Parson proceeds to shew how man is tempted in his flesh to sin; how, after his natural concupiscence, comes suggestion of the devil, that is to say the devil's bellows, with which he bloweth in man the fire of con cupiscence; and how man then bethinketh him whether he will do or no the thing to which he is tempted. If he flame up into pleasure at the thought, and give way, then is he all dead in soul; "and thus is sin accomplished, by temptation, by delight, and by consenting; and then is the sin actual." Sin is either venial, or deadly; deadly, when a man loves any creature more than Jesus Christ our Creator, venial, if he love Jesus Christ less than he ought. Venial sins diminish man's love to God more and more, and may in this wise skip into deadly sin; for many small make a great. "And hearken this example: A great wave of the sea cometh sometimes with so great a violence, that it drencheth [causes to sink] the ship: and the same harm do sometimes the small drops, of water that enter through a little crevice in the thurrok [hold, bilge], and in the bottom of the ship, if men be so negligent that they discharge them not betimes. And therefore, although there be difference betwixt these two causes of drenching, algates [in any case] the ship is dreint [sunk]. Right so fareth it sometimes of deadly sin," and of venial sins when they multiply in a man so greatly as to make him love worldly things more than God. The Parson then enumerates specially a number of sins which many a man peradventure deems no sins, and confesses them not, and yet nevertheless they are truly sins: -- ]

计划指导

1.  Lo here, the wise king Dan* Solomon, *Lord <4> I trow that he had wives more than one; As would to God it lawful were to me To be refreshed half so oft as he! What gift* of God had he for all his wives? *special favour, licence No man hath such, that in this world alive is. God wot, this noble king, *as to my wit,* *as I understand* The first night had many a merry fit With each of them, so *well was him on live.* *so well he lived* Blessed be God that I have wedded five! Welcome the sixth whenever that he shall. For since I will not keep me chaste in all, When mine husband is from the world y-gone, Some Christian man shall wedde me anon. For then th' apostle saith that I am free To wed, *a' God's half,* where it liketh me. *on God's part* He saith, that to be wedded is no sin; Better is to be wedded than to brin.* *burn What recketh* me though folk say villainy** *care **evil Of shrewed* Lamech, and his bigamy? *impious, wicked I wot well Abraham was a holy man, And Jacob eke, as far as ev'r I can.* *know And each of them had wives more than two; And many another holy man also. Where can ye see, *in any manner age,* *in any period* That highe God defended* marriage *forbade <5> By word express? I pray you tell it me; Or where commanded he virginity? I wot as well as you, it is no dread,* *doubt Th' apostle, when he spake of maidenhead, He said, that precept thereof had he none: Men may counsel a woman to be one,* *a maid But counseling is no commandement; He put it in our owen judgement. For, hadde God commanded maidenhead, Then had he damned* wedding out of dread;** *condemned **doubt And certes, if there were no seed y-sow,* *sown Virginity then whereof should it grow? Paul durste not commanden, at the least, A thing of which his Master gave no hest.* *command The dart* is set up for virginity; *goal <6> Catch whoso may, who runneth best let see. But this word is not ta'en of every wight, *But there as* God will give it of his might. *except where* I wot well that th' apostle was a maid, But natheless, although he wrote and said, He would that every wight were such as he, All is but counsel to virginity. And, since to be a wife he gave me leave Of indulgence, so is it no repreve* *scandal, reproach To wedde me, if that my make* should die, *mate, husband Without exception* of bigamy; *charge, reproach *All were it* good no woman for to touch *though it might be* (He meant as in his bed or in his couch), For peril is both fire and tow t'assemble Ye know what this example may resemble. This is all and some, he held virginity More profit than wedding in frailty: (*Frailty clepe I, but if* that he and she *frailty I call it, Would lead their lives all in chastity), unless* I grant it well, I have of none envy Who maidenhead prefer to bigamy; It liketh them t' be clean in body and ghost;* *soul Of mine estate* I will not make a boast. *condition
2.  O scatheful harm, condition of poverty, With thirst, with cold, with hunger so confounded; To aske help thee shameth in thine hearte; If thou none ask, so sore art thou y-wounded, That very need unwrappeth all thy wound hid. Maugre thine head thou must for indigence Or steal, or beg, or borrow thy dispence*. *expense
3.  42. If I breake your defence: if I transgress in whatever you may forbid; French, "defendre," to prohibit.
4.  Whilom there was dwelling in Lombardy A worthy knight, that born was at Pavie, In which he liv'd in great prosperity; And forty years a wifeless man was he, And follow'd aye his bodily delight On women, where as was his appetite, As do these fooles that be seculeres.<2> And, when that he was passed sixty years, Were it for holiness, or for dotage, I cannot say, but such a great corage* *inclination Hadde this knight to be a wedded man, That day and night he did all that he can To espy where that he might wedded be; Praying our Lord to grante him, that he Mighte once knowen of that blissful life That is betwixt a husband and his wife, And for to live under that holy bond With which God firste man and woman bond. "None other life," said he, "is worth a bean; For wedlock is so easy, and so clean, That in this world it is a paradise." Thus said this olde knight, that was so wise. And certainly, as sooth* as God is king, *true To take a wife it is a glorious thing, And namely* when a man is old and hoar, *especially Then is a wife the fruit of his treasor; Then should he take a young wife and a fair, On which he might engender him an heir, And lead his life in joy and in solace;* *mirth, delight Whereas these bachelors singen "Alas!" When that they find any adversity In love, which is but childish vanity. And truely it sits* well to be so, *becomes, befits That bachelors have often pain and woe: On brittle ground they build, and brittleness They finde when they *weene sickerness:* *think that there They live but as a bird or as a beast, is security* In liberty, and under no arrest;* *check, control Whereas a wedded man in his estate Liveth a life blissful and ordinate, Under the yoke of marriage y-bound; Well may his heart in joy and bliss abound. For who can be so buxom* as a wife? *obedient Who is so true, and eke so attentive To keep* him, sick and whole, as is his make?** *care for **mate For weal or woe she will him not forsake: She is not weary him to love and serve, Though that he lie bedrid until he sterve.* *die And yet some clerkes say it is not so; Of which he, Theophrast, is one of tho:* *those *What force* though Theophrast list for to lie? *what matter*
5.  15 Translation of the epitaph: This tomb was built for Geoffrey Chaucer, who in his time was the greatest poet of the English. If you ask the year of his death, behold the words beneath, which tell you all. Death gave him rest from his toil, 25th of October 1400. N Brigham bore the cost of these words in the name of the Muses. 1556.
6.  When he escaped was, he could not stint* *refrain For to begin a newe war again; He weened well, for that Fortune him sent Such hap, that he escaped through the rain, That of his foes he mighte not be slain. And eke a sweven* on a night he mette,** *dream **dreamed Of which he was so proud, and eke so fain,* *glad That he in vengeance all his hearte set.

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1.  Then Dame Prudence, when she saw the goodwill of her husband, deliberated and took advice in herself, thinking how she might bring this need [affair, emergency] unto a good end. And when she saw her time, she sent for these adversaries to come into her into a privy place, and showed wisely into them the great goods that come of peace, and the great harms and perils that be in war; and said to them, in goodly manner, how that they ought have great repentance of the injuries and wrongs that they had done to Meliboeus her Lord, and unto her and her daughter. And when they heard the goodly words of Dame Prudence, then they were surprised and ravished, and had so great joy of her, that wonder was to tell. "Ah lady!" quoth they, "ye have showed unto us the blessing of sweetness, after the saying of David the prophet; for the reconciling which we be not worthy to have in no manner, but we ought require it with great contrition and humility, ye of your great goodness have presented unto us. Now see we well, that the science and conning [knowledge] of Solomon is full true; for he saith, that sweet words multiply and increase friends, and make shrews [the ill-natured or angry] to be debonair [gentle, courteous] and meek. Certes we put our deed, and all our matter and cause, all wholly in your goodwill, and be ready to obey unto the speech and commandment of my lord Meliboeus. And therefore, dear and benign lady, we pray you and beseech you as meekly as we can and may, that it like unto your great goodness to fulfil in deed your goodly words. For we consider and acknowledge that we have offended and grieved my lord Meliboeus out of measure, so far forth that we be not of power to make him amends; and therefore we oblige and bind us and our friends to do all his will and his commandment. But peradventure he hath such heaviness and such wrath to usward, [towards us] because of our offence, that he will enjoin us such a pain [penalty] as we may not bear nor sustain; and therefore, noble lady, we beseech to your womanly pity to take such advisement [consideration] in this need, that we, nor our friends, be not disinherited and destroyed through our folly."
2.  "Te Deum amoris" <51> sang the throstel* cock: *thrush Tubal <52> himself, the first musician, With key of harmony could not unlock So sweet a tune as that the throstel can: "The Lord of Love we praise," quoth he than,* *then And so do all the fowles great and lite;* *little "Honour we May, in false lovers' despite."
3.  23. The meaning is: "Witness the practice of Rome, that was the founder of all knighthood and marvellous deeds; and I refer for corroboration to Titus Livius" -- who, in several passages, has mentioned the laurel crown as the highest military honour. For instance, in 1. vii. c. 13, Sextus Tullius, remonstrating for the army against the inaction in which it is kept, tells the Dictator Sulpicius, "Duce te vincere cupimus; tibi lauream insignem deferre; tecum triumphantes urbem inire." ("Commander, we want you to conquer; to bring you the laurel insignia; to enter the city with you in triumph")
4.  The mighty throne, the precious treasor, The glorious sceptre, and royal majesty, That had the king NABUCHODONOSOR With tongue unnethes* may described be. *scarcely He twice won Jerusalem the city, The vessels of the temple he with him lad;* *took away At Babylone was his sov'reign see,* *seat In which his glory and delight he had.
5.   ZENOBIA, of Palmyrie the queen, <12> As write Persians of her nobless, So worthy was in armes, and so keen, That no wight passed her in hardiness, Nor in lineage, nor other gentleness.* *noble qualities Of the king's blood of Perse* is she descended; *Persia I say not that she hadde most fairness, But of her shape she might not he amended.
6.  In many a cruel battle Troilus wrought havoc among the Greeks, and often he exchanged blows and bitter words with Diomede, whom he always specially sought; but it was not their lot that either should fall by the other's hand. The poet's purpose, however, he tells us, is to relate, not the warlike deeds of Troilus, which Dares has fully told, but his love-fortunes:

应用

1.  9. The song is a translation of Petrarch's 88th Sonnet, which opens thus: "S'amor non e, che dunque e quel ch'i'sento."
2.  And, after that, to all her company She made to purvey* horse and ev'rything *provide That they needed; and then full lustily, Ev'n by the arbour where I was sitting, They passed all, so merrily singing, That it would have comforted any wight. But then I saw a passing wondrous sight;
3.  But take heed, Sirs, now for Godde's love. He took his coal, of which I spake above, And in his hand he bare it privily, And while the prieste couched busily The coales, as I tolde you ere this, This canon saide, "Friend, ye do amiss; This is not couched as it ought to be, But soon I shall amenden it," quoth he. "Now let me meddle therewith but a while, For of you have I pity, by Saint Gile. Ye be right hot, I see well how ye sweat; Have here a cloth, and wipe away the wet." And while that the prieste wip'd his face, This canon took his coal, -- *with sorry grace,* -- *evil fortune And layed it above on the midward attend him!* Of the croslet, and blew well afterward, Till that the coals beganne fast to brenn.* *burn "Now give us drinke," quoth this canon then, "And swithe* all shall be well, I undertake. *quickly Sitte we down, and let us merry make." And whenne that this canon's beechen coal Was burnt, all the limaile out of the hole Into the crosselet anon fell down; And so it muste needes, by reasoun, Since it above so *even couched* was; *exactly laid* But thereof wist the priest no thing, alas! He deemed all the coals alike good, For of the sleight he nothing understood.
4、  Now as to speak of bodily pain, it is in prayer, in wakings, [watchings] in fastings, and in virtuous teachings. Of orisons ye shall understand, that orisons or prayers is to say a piteous will of heart, that redresseth it in God, and expresseth it by word outward, to remove harms, and to have things spiritual and durable, and sometimes temporal things. Of which orisons, certes in the orison of the Pater noster hath our Lord Jesus Christ enclosed most things. Certes, it is privileged of three things in its dignity, for which it is more digne [worthy] than any other prayer: for Jesus Christ himself made it: and it is short, for [in order] it should be coude the more lightly, [be more easily conned or learned] and to withhold [retain] it the more easy in heart, and help himself the oftener with this orison; and for a man should be the less weary to say it; and for a man may not excuse him to learn it, it is so short and so easy: and for it comprehendeth in itself all good prayers. The exposition of this holy prayer, that is so excellent and so digne, I betake [commit] to these masters of theology; save thus much will I say, when thou prayest that God should forgive thee thy guilts, as thou forgivest them that they guilt to thee, be full well ware that thou be not out of charity. This holy orison aminisheth [lesseneth] eke venial sin, and therefore it appertaineth specially to penitence. This prayer must be truly said, and in very faith, and that men pray to God ordinately, discreetly, and devoutly; and always a man shall put his will to be subject to the will of God. This orison must eke be said with great humbleness and full pure, and honestly, and not to the annoyance of any man or woman. It must eke be continued with the works of charity. It availeth against the vices of the soul; for, assaith Saint Jerome, by fasting be saved the vices of the flesh, and by prayer the vices of the soul
5、  "This is the life of joy that we be in, Resembling life of heav'nly paradise; Love is exiler ay of vice and sin; Love maketh heartes lusty to devise; Honour and grace have they in ev'ry wise, That be to love's law obedient; Love maketh folk benign and diligent;

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  • 鲁双喜 08-03

      He vouchesaf'd, tell Him, as was His will, Become a man, *as for our alliance,* *to ally us with god* And with His blood He wrote that blissful bill Upon the cross, as general acquittance To ev'ry penitent in full creance;* *belief And therefore, Lady bright! thou for us pray; Then shalt thou stenten* alle His grievance, *put an end to And make our foe to failen of his prey.

  • 乔灌木 08-03

      3. In Chaucer's day the most material notions about the tortures of hell prevailed, and were made the most of by the clergy, who preyed on the affection and fear of the survivors, through the ingenious doctrine of purgatory. Old paintings and illuminations represent the dead as torn by hooks, roasted in fires, boiled in pots, and subjected to many other physical torments.

  • 陈金富 08-03

       95. Strode was an eminent scholar of Merton College, Oxford, and tutor to Chaucer's son Lewis.

  • 李世英 08-03

      In Syria whilom dwelt a company Of chapmen rich, and thereto sad* and true, *grave, steadfast Clothes of gold, and satins rich of hue. That widewhere* sent their spicery, *to distant parts Their chaffare* was so thriftly** and so new, *wares **advantageous That every wight had dainty* to chaffare** *pleasure **deal With them, and eke to selle them their ware.

  • 张琦 08-02

    {  This is to say, the princes every one; And eke three thousand bodies were there slain With falling of the great temple of stone. Of Sampson now will I no more sayn; Beware by this example old and plain, That no man tell his counsel to his wife Of such thing as he would *have secret fain,* *wish to be secret* If that it touch his limbes or his life.

  • 吴宅 08-01

      75. The modern phrase "sixes and sevens," means "in confusion:" but here the idea of gaming perhaps suits the sense better -- "set the world upon a cast of the dice."}

  • 钱达人 08-01

      2. "And to you been of governance Such as you found in whole pleasance" That is, "and have governed you in a manner which you have found wholly pleasant."

  • 张立威 08-01

      "The god of love, ah! benedicite*, *bless ye him How mighty and how great a lord is he! Against his might there gaine* none obstacles, *avail, conquer He may be called a god for his miracles For he can maken at his owen guise Of every heart, as that him list devise. Lo here this Arcite, and this Palamon, That quietly were out of my prison, And might have lived in Thebes royally, And weet* I am their mortal enemy, *knew And that their death li'th in my might also, And yet hath love, *maugre their eyen two*, *in spite of their eyes* Y-brought them hither bothe for to die. Now look ye, is not this an high folly? Who may not be a fool, if but he love? Behold, for Godde's sake that sits above, See how they bleed! be they not well array'd? Thus hath their lord, the god of love, them paid Their wages and their fees for their service; And yet they weene for to be full wise, That serve love, for aught that may befall. But this is yet the beste game* of all, *joke That she, for whom they have this jealousy, Can them therefor as muchel thank as me. She wot no more of all this *hote fare*, *hot behaviour* By God, than wot a cuckoo or an hare. But all must be assayed hot or cold; A man must be a fool, or young or old; I wot it by myself *full yore agone*: *long years ago* For in my time a servant was I one. And therefore since I know of love's pain, And wot how sore it can a man distrain*, *distress As he that oft hath been caught in his last*, *snare <38> I you forgive wholly this trespass, At request of the queen that kneeleth here, And eke of Emily, my sister dear. And ye shall both anon unto me swear, That never more ye shall my country dere* *injure Nor make war upon me night nor day, But be my friends in alle that ye may. I you forgive this trespass *every deal*. *completely* And they him sware *his asking* fair and well, *what he asked* And him of lordship and of mercy pray'd, And he them granted grace, and thus he said:

  • 李宝兰 07-31

       25. Spell: Tale, discourse, from Anglo-Saxon, "spellian," to declare, tell a story.

  • 代班 07-29

    {  6. "Conscius ipse sibi de se putat omnia dici" ("The conspirator believes that everything spoken refers to himself") -- "De Moribus," I. i. dist. 17.

  • 许忠杰 07-29

      The Friar laugh'd when he had heard all this: "Now, Dame," quoth he, "so have I joy and bliss, This is a long preamble of a tale." And when the Sompnour heard the Friar gale,* *speak "Lo," quoth this Sompnour, "Godde's armes two, A friar will intermete* him evermo': *interpose <33> Lo, goode men, a fly and eke a frere Will fall in ev'ry dish and eke mattere. What speak'st thou of perambulation?* *preamble What? amble or trot; or peace, or go sit down: Thou lettest* our disport in this mattere." *hinderesst "Yea, wilt thou so, Sir Sompnour?" quoth the Frere; "Now by my faith I shall, ere that I go, Tell of a Sompnour such a tale or two, That all the folk shall laughen in this place." "Now do, else, Friar, I beshrew* thy face," *curse Quoth this Sompnour; "and I beshrewe me, But if* I telle tales two or three *unless Of friars, ere I come to Sittingbourne, That I shall make thine hearte for to mourn: For well I wot thy patience is gone." Our Hoste cried, "Peace, and that anon;" And saide, "Let the woman tell her tale. Ye fare* as folk that drunken be of ale. *behave Do, Dame, tell forth your tale, and that is best." "All ready, sir," quoth she, "right as you lest,* *please If I have licence of this worthy Frere." "Yes, Dame," quoth he, "tell forth, and I will hear."

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